The kingdom of heaven prior to the final redemption can be likened to a partisan movement, such as Robin Hood and his men or the European freedom fighters that fought in Nazi occupied territory. The Partisans is a teaching on Hebrews 2 in light of Psalm 8 and the parable of Luke 19:12ff concerning all things in subjection to the Son and the revelation of the kingdom.
-D. Thomas Lancaster
Sermon Eight: The Partisans
Originally presented on February 16, 2013
from the Holy Epistle to the Hebrews sermon series
Lancaster’s sermons on Hebrews are always fascinating, but I really think he outdid himself with this one.
His goal for this sermon was to make it all the way through Hebrews 2. Last week we saw how Messiah is higher than the angels, and this week we explore, among other things, how Jesus had to be temporarily made a little lower than the angels, just as the rest of humanity is, in order to be elevated so that all things are put under his feet.
Lancaster cites this chapter as well as portions of 1 Corinthians 15 as something of a midrash on Psalm 8 and 110. In fact, Psalm 8 (I provided the link for your convenience) is a very significant quote used by the writer of Hebrews here:
For He did not subject to angels the world to come, concerning which we are speaking. But one has testified somewhere, saying,
“What is man, that You remember him?
Or the son of man, that You are concerned about him?
“You have made him for a little while lower than the angels;
You have crowned him with glory and honor,
And have appointed him over the works of Your hands;
You have put all things in subjection under his feet.”
For in subjecting all things to him, He left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we do not yet see all things subjected to him.
–Hebrews 2:5-8 (NASB)
Along with Psalm 110, we see that literally everything has been placed under King Messiah’s control and authority, everything in Heaven, on Earth, and in the age to come. There are no exceptions and further, that Messiah’s Kingship and authority are not to be realized in the future, but they exist in the present (at the time of the writing of Hebrews), that is, right now.
OK. That’s incredibly cool. Jesus is King. I hear that a lot in hymns at church. Problem is, as I look around, I don’t see a world ruled by the Messiah King. I don’t see all of Israel’s enemies defeated, all the Jewish people returned to their Land, a world-wide reign of total peace, a Temple of God in Jerusalem, the Spirit of God poured out on all flesh, or any of the other things the Prophets of old said would accompany the Kingship of Messiah.
So how can everything already be under Messiah’s authority if the Earth is still such an awful mess?
While they were listening to these things, Jesus went on to tell a parable, because He was near Jerusalem, and they supposed that the kingdom of God was going to appear immediately. So He said, “A nobleman went to a distant country to receive a kingdom for himself, and then return. And he called ten of his slaves, and gave them ten minas and said to them, ‘Do business with this until I come back.’ But his citizens hated him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man to reign over us.’ When he returned, after receiving the kingdom…
…But these enemies of mine, who did not want me to reign over them, bring them here and slay them in my presence.”
–Luke 19:11-15, 27 (NASB)
You’ll probably want to read all of Luke 19:11-27 to get the full parable, but for the sake of the length of this missive, I quoted only the most relevant portions.
Jesus is speaking a parable about Herod, who escaped ancient Israel after being on the wrong end of a dispute, and ran off to Rome, and then due to circumstances you can learn in Lancaster’s sermon, was made King of Israel. Now he was King and given all authority as such while in Rome, but the people in Israel had no idea and they believed they were subject to their current pretender King.
Of course, as Lancaster said, Rome would have sent a dispatch ahead of Herod’s return announcing his Kingship and authority, but there would certainly be people who would not want to accept him. If it wouldn’t be more or less suicidal, the rebels could have sent a dispatch back saying, we don’t want to accept him as King. But the parable says that’s what happened.
Now Lancaster says we can apply this parable to Jesus as well. When he ascended, he sat at the right hand of the Father and at that point in time, everything was placed under his authority as King. But, he was (and is) still in a far away place, but he’s returning. It is also true that a “dispatch” has been sent to his Kingdom, that is, the world, saying that Jesus has been made King and that he already has authority, but people have responded that they want the current King and do not want the King who is currently far away and who will return only later (or as many atheists say, a King who does not exist at all).
The population under a not present Herod was divided into those who were loyal to the current King and those who were loyalist to the King who would return.
We are like that, too. Plenty of people, probably most people worldwide, are loyal to the current King of our world, but we who are believers are loyalists to the one we know is truly King and who will one day return.
Lancaster used the metaphor of Robin Hood and his Merry Men who were the Partisans or members of the Resistance movement of their day, working against the current King John but remaining loyal to the true King Richard, who one day would return. Only when King Richard returned would Robin and the loyalists be rewarded. Until that time, they were in constant danger.
And so it is with us. Actually, I was thinking of the Resistance movement in Nazi occupied France during World War 2 who were always in hiding, covertly committing acts of sabotage, struggling to make the way for the Allied invasion, and remaining loyal to the true authority over France. They were physically in a Nazi occupied land, living among them, eating, doing business, interacting with the occupiers, but they did not collaborate and were not of the subjects of the false “King”.
And so it is with us. Lancaster made great points about being slaves to the material world if you are a slave to the current King . But servants of the true King are free of the traps of the material world and fear of death in our loyalty to the King who has authority over Heaven, Earth, and the Messianic Age. Yet the Messianic Age is only a doorway to the furthest extent of Messiah’s Kingdom, the life in the world to come…eternity.
Being a “resistance fighter” is what it is to be a believer. We are loyalists to the coming King. We oppose the current King, who is the master of death, HaSatan, the adversary, “the devil.”
Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook of the same, that through death He might render powerless him who had the power of death, that is, the devil, and might free those who through fear of death were subject to slavery all their lives.
–Hebrews 2:14-15 (NASB)
Some midrashim equate HaSatan with the angel of death and others do not, but according to Lancaster, the writer of Hebrews spoke of the two as the same. If you thought this world was it and there was nothing else, then death is death and when you die, that’s it. Your reward is confined to this world so you might as well “eat, drink, and be merry, for tomorrow we all die.” Of course, that doesn’t mean all atheists are totally materialistic or can’t lead moral lives, but they are subjects only of the present world, so this is all they’ve got.
If we aren’t subjects of the King of this world but of the true King who has authority over everything, not just the Earth, and who is promised to return to deliver a Kingdom that is much finer and more just, a Kingdom of absolute peace and knowledge of God, then we don’t have to be afraid of or limited by the threat of death. We don’t accept death. Death is the enemy. Death can be personified. We oppose death.
Lancaster covered the Biblical rationale for why Jesus was made King and exalted over all, and it’s not just because he’s the Son of God and the Divine Logos. Believe it or not, he actually had to do something and he had a choice about whether or not to do it…that is he had to die. You can listen to the recording to get all the details and I highly recommend that you do, for it shows that in his victory over death, by dying for us all, we, as believers, also conquered and more, we became brothers (I’ll say more on that in a moment).
So the two interrelated themes of most of Hebrews 2 as Lancaster sees them, are that we, as believers, are loyalists to the coming true King and not the current pretender on the Throne, and that the defeat of death by Messiah not only was a choice on his part, but granted those of us who are his subjects eternal life. It was that conquest by Messiah that merited him a name above all names and his being granted authority over all things in existence right now, even though we can’t currently see his full control in our present world.
Lancaster delivered a fabulous interpretation of both themes and I strongly recommend that you listen to this sermon to get the full details.
What Did I Learn?
Although Christianity applies everything written in the New Testament as automatically applying to the Church, that is the body of Gentile believers that includes those Jewish people who have converted and assimilated into Gentile Christianity, Lancaster reminds us that the writer of the epistle to the Hebrews was Jewish and he was writing to an entirely Jewish audience.
When the writer of Hebrews says Messiah refers to his followers as “brothers” (verse 12) and “children” (verse 13), he was talking about Israel, the Jewish people. There’s no direct connection that says he was applying those words to Gentile believers as well. Lancaster believes this ultimately includes all non-Jewish disciples of the Master as “brothers,” but I don’t think it’s that simple.
John 20:17 is one of the verses that shows Jesus referring to the disciples as “brothers” after his resurrection, so there was something in his death and resurrection that changed his relationship to the Jewish people, something the Jewish believers received as a result of Messiah’s trial in dying. However, Jesus and the writer of Hebrews are talking to Jewish people.
I’ve been having a conversation with a Jewish believer in the discussion thread on another of my blog posts about the role and relationship between believing Jews and Gentiles in the Messianic Jewish synagogue context. He believes in distinctiveness in identity, but that Gentiles should have equal access to resources and honors (aliyot, for instance) in the Messianic Jewish community. Others have commented that even if Jews and Gentiles should attend the same Messianic group, it would be justifiable for a separation (something like how men and women are separated in Orthodox synagogues, mirroring the court of the women in Herod’s temple) between Jews and Gentiles to exist.
My view is that Messianic Judaism, like the present and coming Kingdom of God, is a process, not a point event. There is going to be variability between different congregations based on tradition and history, at least until the coming of Messiah, just like there will be a slow revelation of evidence of Messiah’s Kingship, starting in the Gospels and ultimately culminating only with the King’s return.
Some months ago, I read Yann Martel’s novel Life of Pi, which I thoroughly enjoyed. At the point when Pi (you’ll have to have read the novel or have seen the film to understand what I’m about to say) realizes he’s sharing a small lifeboat with an adult Bengal Tiger, he realizes how unsafe this is (a huge understatement) and rapidly forms a small, makeshift raft, tying it to the lifeboat, and then launching it behind the larger vessel. This becomes his haven from the Tiger until he eventually learns how to “convince” the Tiger they can co-exist on the lifeboat.
I sometimes see that as the current relationship between Jews and Gentiles within the very specific context of Messianic Judaism. We are struggling with many things as “resistance fighters” in an unholy Kingdom and one of our struggles is how the different populations in the body of Messiah are supposed to interact, especially with the centuries long history of enmity between Jews and Christians. One way is to expect one population to assimilate into the other.
Historically, Gentile Christianity has demanded Jews to assimilate into them as a consequence of worship of the Jewish Messiah. In much more recent times, certain groups organized under “Hebrew Roots” have expected Gentiles to “assimilate” into a quasi-Jewish religious and cultural body (with varying degrees of “Jewishness”) becoming a single identity.
Other more Jewish aspects of Messianic Judaism, in partial reparation for past injuries, require a wholly Jewish environment in which to live and be Messianic Jews. Gentiles are welcome, but with the understanding that they are entering a Jewish environment as Gentiles. No compromises, no assimilation.
Pi on the raft and the Tiger in the lifeboat…for now.
The writer of Hebrews didn’t account for the presence of Gentiles at all in his sermon and we should do the same. But while this sermon clarifies a good many things for us, well “me” anyway, it doesn’t paint a portrait of Jewish/Gentile relationships in Messiah. Israel is Messiah’s brother, and the Jewish people are his children. It is only faith that allows me to take some small comfort that as a Gentile disciple and subject of the Messiah King, for he has dominion over everything including all the Gentile nations, that I may be called a “brother” and “child” too, though not in the same way as Israel, for Messiah is Israel’s first-born from the dead.
Not quite as dramatic or heroic as being a partisan, a resistance fighter, or one of Robin Hood’s Merry Men, but I’ll accept whatever seat at the table I’m offered. As Marcus Brody (Denholm Elliot) said in the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989), “At my age, I’m prepared to take a few things on faith.”
15 thoughts on “Sermon Review of the Holy Epistle to the Hebrews: The Partisans”
“So the two interrelated themes of most of Hebrews 2 as Lancaster sees them, are that we, as believers, are loyalists to the coming true King and not the current pretender on the Throne…”
Amen. I suppose that’s one of the things that makes us “believers”, it isn’t totally obvious yet. Thank you for a great meditation James.
You’re welcome. I enjoy our current series as well.
I have taken up a slogan for the educational venture I’m slowly building, preparing text for brochures, etc. My strategic plan is to use smart technology to poll secondary and college-age audiences on-site as regards current knowledge of the Holocaust, providing results that are immediate as a precursor to marketing workshops on the Holocaust in the schools I gain access to. I’ve retained the support of a booking agent and acquired a “manager” vis a vis a best friend who has been in college student activities administration for fifteen years. I see it as an “underground operation,” in a sense, engaging the denial and anti-israel movements, etc., etc., etc, on campuses with educational stealth.
The slogan is this: “Education is resistance. Support the resistance.”
Friends advise, concernedly: be careful. But as you say, James, all authority has been given to the distant King and we are to view death differently than the non-believing world. I oppose the reigning king, who seeks to isolate Israel politically and economically and socially in the present while also erasing an epic link in its past: the Holocaust. The Obama administration has made great strides in undermining Israel’s position in the world. Now is the time to begin the partisan operations, targeting key links in the enemy’s stratagem. I just reread the latest book about Bonhoeffer (Eric Metaxas; by all appearances, Bonhoeffer was a replacement theologian, interestingly enough; see Jacob’s Relief archives for a brief series). I am currently re-visiting the White Rose movement as this was a resistance movement which began on college campuses in Germany.
Perhaps if the Christian Church was more fluent in Jewish history it would better understand the concept of partisan fighting and its application to the defense of Israel and the Jewish people in the here-and-now. Not to mention its application to its own self-defense.
It is Purim and how provocative it is that this issue has found its way into your cyber space, James. Even as Iran continues to rise up in the spirit of Amalek and the nations surround Israel with the walls of a foreign policy ghetto. D. Lancaster has it right. And we are our brother’s keeper, both Jewish and Gentile. Great, and timely, post.
Education is resistance. Support the resistance.
Education is resistance. Support the resistance.
I like it.
Maybe we’d do a lot better if we saw ourselves as freedom fighters or partisans fighting a revolutionary war in preparation for the return of the King. Maybe something with a Star Wars theme. Who wants to be part of the Rebel Rebellion against the Empire?
A quote just popped in my head from the film “Terminator Salvation” (2009) … not a great film but a great quote: “If you are listening to this, you are the resistance.”
Yes. I am ready to serve the Rebel Rebellion… as long as you promise the soundtrack will play throughout… Sage advice from Han: ““Never tell me the odds!” And Yoda, of course: ““Hmm! Adventure. Hmmpf! Excitement. A Jedi craves not these things.”
Love the Terminator quote. I tell every student audience before they listen to survivor testimony that if they would rather not be a witness of the Holocaust to please leave the room. If they stay, they are witnesses.
The White Rose partisans and the Bielski brothers are the two most epic inspirations I’ve learned of; that and . Have you ever read “The Bielski Brothers: The True Story of Three Men Who Defied the Nazis, Built a Village in the Forest, and Saved 1,200 Jews” by Nehema Tec? (http://www.amazon.com/The-Bielski-Brothers-Defied-Village/dp/0060935537) The movie version, ‘Defiance,’ is good, but the book is better. Favorite exchange from the movie;
Konstanty ‘Koscik’ Kozlowski (Gentile police force): Why is it so ——– hard being friends with a Jew?
Tuvia Bielski: Try being one.
Who are the folks in the photo header?
Funny you should mention the Bielski partisans. This is one source for the image.
You want theme music?
You wrote, “Others have commented that even if Jews and Gentiles should attend the same Messianic group, it would be justifiable for a separation (something like how men and women are separated in Orthodox synagogues, mirroring the court of the women in Herod’s temple) between Jews and Gentiles to exist.”
Is there a reason to choose Herod’s Temple as a reference? What about using the Mishkan, instead? I don’t remember any mention of separation between people except due to the sanctification of the priests and the work done to support the Mishkan by the Levites.
Still, I expect this is an issue with lots of emotional charge for lots of folks…which suggests to me that many or most have expectations and agendas that they want fulfilled…and these various expectations and agendas may have little to do with what Our Father in Heaven wants for us. Division is of HaSatan.
…and you wrote, “Not quite as dramatic or heroic as being a partisan, a resistance fighter, or one of Robin Hood’s Merry Men, but I’ll accept whatever seat at the table I’m offered.”
Amen, brother. 🙂
Hi Jimmy. I chose Herod’s Temple because Lancaster’s sermon series assumes that the writer of Hebrews was addressing a group of Hellenistic Jews living in or near Jerusalem who were being denied access to Herod’s Temple because of their faith in Jesus. Remember, I’m reviewing a series of sermons I didn’t write or give, so my writing is as much a report about what I heard as my opinions about it.
When God created the universe and our little planet, he separated all sorts of things, land and water, ground and air, plants, animals, fish, people. When he chose Israel and gave them the Torah at Sinai, He separated them from the rest of humanity. Even within Israel, he separated, to one degree or another, men and women, Kohenim, Levites, and so on, so God creates divisions all the time.
We even have a directive in the New Testament not to be unequally yoked, so there’s another separation. I don’t think God “unchose” Israel for the sake of the Gentiles, either turning them (functionally) into Gentiles, or turning Gentiles into Jews without a brit milan (ritual circumcision). Jesus said when we go to sit down at a wedding feast, don’t take the seat at the head of the table but take the seat furthest away, showing humility. It’s up to the host to elevate us if he so chooses.
Right now, I’ll stand by what I said before and “accept whatever seat at the table I’m offered.” I’m sure if it’s offered by the host, the Messiah, it is more than good enough.
Good points. Thanks for the feedback. 🙂
Ready to sabotage the railways of propaganda, James, upon hearing that score. 🙂 Funny, I’ve always incorporated soundtracks into my life. First half-marathon in the early eighties was the Long Island Marathon. The theme from “Rocky” on a cassette deck inspired me along the way… that and a felt-lettered t-shirt which read on the back of a runner as he passed me: “You’ve just been passed by Grandfather Leo, 74 years old.” 🙂
Whether battling propaganda from the underground or running a marathon, slow and steady often wins the race.
And whatever seat you take, James, I’ll take the one next to you and be likewise as grateful. Every seat’s gotta be as good as front-row in the court of King Messiah.
@Dan: The other day, my five year old grandson and I were playing with Star Wars themed legos. He always assigns different figures to him and me and he gave me Luke Skywalker. I was humming the Star Wars music every time I got to do something as “Luke”.
@Jimmy. No worries.
Great review, as usual. Liked the pic from Seventh Seal…and the Terminator Salvation quote as well.
Ah. A fan of older films. Good for you, Yahnatan. The quote from “Terminator Salvation” is the best thing about the film, but “The Seventh Seal” is a classic.